Sudan was a major centre of African civilization in antiquity.
When Europe was a wasteland of barbarism and cave-dwelling illiteracy, Sudan (ancient Nubia) was giving the world mighty temples and pyramids built according to the highest mathematical and geometric principles and standards.
Incidentally, I was watching an American TV news show the other day in which the host, Joe Scarborough, was telling his viewers that ”Arabs invented mathematics”.
A claim profoundly false and misleading, since the pyramids of Sudan – all 223 of them, were built thousands of years before the birth of Muhammed, the founder of Islam.
(Egypt’s pyramids and temples, of course, are another example of ancient black African mathematics that preceded by thousands of years all European and Arab civilizations, but this thread is about Sudan)
”Nubian pyramids are pyramids that were built by the rulers of the ancient Kushite kingdoms. The area of the Nile valley known as Nubia, which lies [in] present-day Sudan, was home to three Kushite kingdoms during antiquity. The first had its capital at Kerma (2500–1500 BC). The second was centered on Napata (1000–300 BC). Finally, the last kingdom was centered on Meroë (300 BC-AD 300). They are built of granite and sandstone. The pyramids were partially demolished by [surprise surprise] Italian combat medic turned explorer and treasure hunter Giuseppe Ferlini in the 1830s”
Temple Art and Architecture
Queen Tiye, Nubian mother of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaton. 1398 BC – 1338 BC
Temple of Amun
……………..Taharqa, Pharaoh of Nubia and Egypt – 690–664 BC
THE WORDS OF LADY LUGARD, Historian wife of Lord Lugard, Ist British Governor-General of Nigeria:
“When the history of Negroland comes to be written in detail, it may be found that the kingdoms lying towards the eastern end of Sudan (classical home of Ancient Africans) were the home of races who inspired, rather than of races who received, the tradition of civilization associated for us with the name of ancient Egypt.
For they cover on either side of the Upper Nile between the latitudes of ten degrees and seventeen degrees, territories in which are found monuments more ancient than the oldest Egyptian monuments. If this should prove to be the case and civilized world be forced to recognize in a black people the fount of its original enlightenment, it may happen that we shall have to revise entirely our view of the black races, and regard those who now exist as the decadent representatives of an almost forgotten era, rather than as the embryonic possibility of an era yet to come.”
“The fame of the ancient Ethiopians (ancient Kushites) was widespread in ancient history. Herodotus described them as the most beautiful and long-lived of the human races, and before Herodotus, Homer, in even more flattering language, described them as the most just of men, the favorites of the gods. The annals of all the great early nations of Asia Minor are full of them. The Mosaic records allude to them frequently; but while they are described as the most powerful, the justest, and the most beautiful of the human race, they are constantly spoken of as Black, and there seems to be no other conclusion to be drawn than at that remote period of history, the leading race of the Western World was a Black race.”
Lady Lugard/Flora Shaw Lugard, Asa G. Hilliard, III, A Tropical Dependency: An Outline of the Ancient History of Western Sudan With an Account of the Modern Settlement of Northern Nigeria, (1900)